Rajeev Peshawaria is the CEO of the ICLIF Leadership & Governance Centre and the author of “Too Many Bosses, Too Few Leaders.” He has previously served as chief learning officer at Morgan Stanley and Coca-Cola and is one of the founding members of the Pine Street Group leadership development program at Goldman Sachs. I talked to him about why there is a lack of strong leadership and what can be done about it.

There is a ton of leadership advice out there, yet, as you point out in the book, on average people say they have worked for between zero and two good leaders. Why aren’t traditional techniques working?

First, we spend a huge amount of time and money trying to teach something that cannot be taught. True leadership is about having the lasting energy to create a better future — that’s not something you can learn in a classroom or training module.

Further, not only are we trying to teach the unteachable, we are also using methods that don’t work. Let’s walk through a few of the most widely used techniques. First, most leadership training is based on competency models. These capture what made someone successful in the past, and argue that if one repeats those same behaviors, one will be successful in the future. But today, when the world is changing faster than ever before, past behavior is no predictor of future success.

Another popular tool to teach leadership is psychometric testing — this is meant to determine if someone has a personality suited for leadership. But a quick look at successful leadership through the ages will reveal that good leadership comes in all personality types and styles, and that here is no correlation whatsoever between a certain personality and effective leadership.

The third popular technique is one used by every business school — the case method. But if we could become great leaders by discussing cases with strangers in a classroom, we would all be leaders by now.

Then we have copy cat role plays based on the notion of “best practice.” Leadership experts tell stories of great leaders (like Jack Welch) and translate their greatness into three-step formulas. The truth is that there is no such thing as a three-step formula to good leadership. And last I checked the dictionary, copying someone else’s behavior was an act of followership, not leadership.

Leadership is not about competency models, two-by-two matrices or best practice role plays. Leadership is about finding and maintaining the energy to create a better future. To become a leader, one must feel deeply about the inadequacies of current reality AND decide to do something about it — and these things come from within.

What does a good leader actually spend his or her time on?

The first step for any leader is to discover their personal source of energy. In order to do this, she must develop laser sharp clarity about two things — her purpose (the results she wants to create) and her values (the principles that will guide her when tested). Clarity of purpose and values are the only sources of long-lasting leadership energy.

After a leader has uncovered her own energy by clarifying her purpose and values, she must spend most of her time aligning the energy of others towards shared purpose. There are three pillars that a leader must proactively shape to make this happen, particularly in large organizations: the brains, bones and nerves of the organization.

The brain of an organization is its vision and strategy. The bones are the organizational architecture, which means having the right people, processes and structure. Finally, the nerves refer to the organization’s culture. We have found that those leaders who proactively and regularly pay attention to these three pillars drive sustainable success.

You define a company’s culture as “what your people do when no one is looking.” What makes for a positive culture, and what is a leader’s role in bringing it about?

A leader must first define what the culture stands for in terms of clearly recognizable behaviors. Unless there is a clear definition of expected behavior, there is no common culture. Once defined, the leader must socialize the culture by communicating expected behaviors regularly. While verbal and written communication is good, the most powerful communication is walking the talk — a leader’s actions speak much louder than her words.

Finally, the leader must reinforce the culture by aligning reward and recognition systems to the desired cultural behaviors. When I was at American Express many years ago, 50% of my bonus depended on my leadership behaviors. I had no doubt in my mind that they were important.

Your book talks about the importance of communicating company goals and strategy. What can leaders, especially those who oversee large numbers of employees, do to make sure their communication efforts are successful?

The key is to make the communication both simple and powerful at the same time. I have seen many brilliant minds fail because they could not communicate brilliant ideas simply enough. And while making things simple, one must not make them simplistic. Vision and strategy must be communicated in a way that is simple to understand but powerful enough to motivate people to action. If leaders can ensure everyone in their organization has a common understanding of the vision and strategy, and are inspired by it, they will unleash the energy of a large number of people towards shared purpose. This is easier said than done, and the only way to become good at it is to consciously try away.

Image courtesy of Cave Henricks Communications

An earlier version of this blog post stated that Rajeev Peshawaria was the sole founder of the Pine Street Group at Goldman Sachs. Peshawaria is one of the founding members. The text has been edited to reflect the correction.

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17 Responses to “Q-and-A with Rajeev Peshawaria: Stop bossing and start leading”

  1. Alexander says:

    I believe that a real leader should have some motivation, and he/she can be a leader without a person/s to guide, and inspire him. He must follow a person/s with content to show and teach him, he/she can just pop things out of his mind without a course and an empty past.

  2. Scott Asai says:

    I believe it comes to the leader not seeing him/herself as leader, but a servant. The leader's job is to help set the vision, but more importantly, get the buy-in and follow through of the people. If he/she can maximize the individual strengths, the team becomes stronger. A leader understands how to work with people. They're more concerned with the person, therefore the work comes easy. At it's purest form, leadership is found in volunteer settings where the leader is thrust on to the scene by his/her people. Positional leadership is the weakest form. Stay away from that.

  3. oliver Ani says:

    Great piece. I like the “Simple” part – that a leader should make his solutions simple. Simple is the new sophistication.

  4. Michael Murphy says:

    Ah, finally, someone says leadership isn't found in a classroom or a book. This line says it all, "To become a leader, one must feel deeply about the inadequacies of current reality AND decide to do something about it — and these things come from within."

    Reminds one of the George Bernard Shaw quote, "The reasonable man adapts himself to the conditions that surround him. The unreasonable man adapts surrounding conditions to himself. All progress depends on the unreasonable man."

    A leader is an unreasonable man in this instance.

  5. mark zagrodnik says:

    You cant lead unless those you wish to have follow buy in and believe in your vision and direction.
    A leader above all else must be someone who can envision direction and then be able to communicate this vision so it motivates and inspires the team, (others) to follow.
    True leadership can only be bestowed by those who wish to be led.
    One of the biggest problems with so many of today's "leaders" is that they push agendas and direction without actually engaging and getting a sense of ownership and belonging from those who they wish to lead.

  6. A Mills says:

    How a true leader spends his time…………..how far back into the 50's are we? I couldn't bring myself to read the content of the blog.

  7. Great post! I particularly like your definition of a company’s culture as “what your people do when no one is looking.” That sounds like a great television show. Oh, wait…it is. It's called The Office.

    Roberta Matuson
    Author: Suddenly in Charge: Managing Up, Managing Down, Succeeding All Around

  8. Neil says:

    I agree that leadership cannot be taught in a classroom or training module. However, leaders can be DEVELOPED by teaching, by example and by someone that is trusted. This has to start early in the person’s life, way before any corporate classroom or training modules.
    I also think leadership is overrated however important because one can have some mess-up values and be a great leader, leading those values; we have seen it and are seeing it… it’s subjective.

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  10. Bernie Walko says:

    Well said. One can’t really teach leadership. The closest organization that does is our military. The only thing I would add is: one’s own experience that is needed to draw on when the leader is in a decision making role and there are conflicts.

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  12. Steve Waters says:

    I have just left the world of public sector education after 35 years as a teacher, senior leader and consultant and have started my own business.

    I am very interested in what Rajeev Pehsawaria has to say about the qualities of a leader. However, I don’t recognise the techniques for leadership training which he summarises. Training for educational leadership is very different from the business model he proposes and, while I agree that a leader has to have the energy and drive to motivate herself and others to take the organisation forward, I disagree that leadership cannot be learnt or acquired. The best schools, those which attain a ‘Good’ or ‘Outstanding’ in the Ofsted inspection framework, embrace the notion of leadership at all levels and reduce the limiting impact of hierarchical structures, enabling all staff to contribute to the development of effective educational practice. In these schools, the drivers for change are the middle leaders, the subject heads whose teams have the most influence on excellent learning and teaching. In the best schools, one of the Headteacher’s and senior leadership team’s most important roles is to create the conditions in which the middle leaders can collaborate with their teams and with one another to deliver effective learning and teaching. And while there are personal qualities which form the bedrock of a good middle leader, in-house training can make all the difference. The acceptance that excellent leadership can be ‘taught’ gave rise to the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) which runs Middle Leadership courses and the National Professional Qualification for Headship (NPQH), both of which place the leadership and management of change high on their agendas. And importantly both make a fundamental distinction between management and leadership.

    Perhaps we need collaboration between public sector education and business training to combine the best practice and to develop the highest quality leaders in both private and public enterprises.

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